Unit 3 Inventors and inventions
I 单元教学目标 技能目标 Goals Talk about inventors and inventions Learn about the stages used in scientific research Learn to use the past participle as the attribute Write a letter asking for a job II 目标语言 Make a telephone call 功 能 句 式 Hold the line, please. Hang on, please. Just a moment, please. I’m sorry, but this phone is out of order. I can’t get through. Sorry. He / She isn’t him / her right now. Can I ring back later? I’ll ring him / her up again. I must ring off now because…
1. 四会词汇 discovery, patent, distinguish, product, power, perfume, cube, abrupt, abruptly, convenient, expectation, monitor, passive, criterion, valid, application, file, committee, bear, jam, mess, forehead, dot, tap, wire, straw, current, importance, helicopter, triangle, stable, practical, refrigerator, court, version 2. 认读词汇
amphibious, Stephenson, George Stephenson, jelly, freezer, overnight, release, recognition, claim, rod, precede, Alexander Graham Bell, microphone, occasionally, multiple, Morse code, inspiration, reproduce, tetrahedron, invaluable, James Dyson 3. 词组 call up, now and then, set about, in case, traffic jam, beaten track, dive into, set out (to do), in truth, hang on, out of order, get through, ring back, ring off 4．重点词汇 discovery, convenient, distinguish, application, expectation, importance, practical, bear
1. The first thing I tried to do was to see if there were products that might help me, but there only seemed to be powders designed to kill snakes. P20 2. Between the outside and inside walls of the bowl there is some jelly, which freezes hard when cooled. P20
3. The criteria are so strict that it is difficult for new ideas to be accepted
重 点 句 子
unless they are truly novel.
4. Nor will you receive a patent until a search has been made to find out that your product really is different from everybody else’s. P21
5. He found that by pressing his lips against his mother’s forehead, he could make the bones move in such a way that she could understand what he was saying. P25
6. He designed a machine that would separate different sound waves and allow different conversations to be held at the same time. P25
7. Although he will always be known for his invention of the telephone, he was in truth a continuing searcher after practical solutions to improve the quality of everybody’s life. P26
III. 教材分析与教材重组 1. 教材分析 本单元以 Inventors and inventions 为话题，旨在通过单元教学，使学生能了 解发明和发现的区别，了解发明创造的过程和获得专利的条件，学习发明家的成 功事例；能灵活运用基础句型描述中外古代和现代发明，谈论不同发明的优缺点 及其现实意义；根据不同问题及条件设计、改进发明并阐述自己的观点；能写出 一封有创新的求职申请，阐述自己的特长和优势，能对别人的发明、创造或观点 提出意见或建议；并能运用所学知识利用现实生活中有限材料进行发明创造。万家乐国际时时彩平台哪个好 1.1 Warming Up 提供了三幅不同发明或发现的图片， 让学生运用已有的知识 和经验，区分发明和发现的不同含义；并能与同伴合作描述现代发明在现实生活 中的作用。
1.2 Pre-Reading 要求学生将课本所列关于进行科学研究或发明创造所必须 经历的几个阶段(步骤或过程)进行正确的排序。万家乐国际时时彩平台哪个好了解每一项发明在得到社会承认 前都必须经历一个过程。 1.3 READING 是一篇记叙性的文章。作者在文中详细介绍了从发现问题 (snake trouble)、分析问题(products that might help)到解决问题(remove the snakes) 的全过程，并介绍了专利申请方面的一些知识。 1.4 Comprehending 第一个训练题要求学生根据课文内容回答问题；第二个 训练要求学生运用科学步骤设计一项发明解决课本所提供的三个问题， 并与同学 交流观点。万家乐国际时时彩平台哪个好第三个训练题要求学生通过进行角色表演活动，学会对某一发明做出 评价并确定其能束获得专利。 1.5 Learning about Language 分两部分。第一部分要求学生利用填空、改写 句子的方式复习所学词汇及表达法。第二部分重点练习过去分词作定语的用法。
1.6 Using Language 分成四部分。第一部分 Reading 要求学生阅读一篇介绍 发明家 Alexander Graham Bell 的文章并回答有关问题， 了解电话发明者贝尔的发 明及其成功的原因。万家乐国际时时彩平台哪个好第二部分 Listening and Speaking 是一段关于 Zhou Rui 对一 家发明公司的工程师进行电话采访的听力材料。要求学生掌握电话交谈常用表 达； 并在此基础上进行角色扮演活动， 即求职者与公司考核人员之间的电话交谈。 第三部分 Writing 要求学生写一封求职信，列举自己的优势、特长和工作经历向 这家发明公司提出求职申请。万家乐国际时时彩平台哪个好
2. 教材重组 2.1 从话题内容上及训练目标分析，Warming Up 与 Speaking 和 Workbook 中的 TALKING 相一致， 可将这三部分整合在一起， 设计成一节任务型“口语课”。 2.2 将 Listening and speaking 和 Workbook 中的 LISTENING, LISTENING TASK 整合在一起，设计成一节 "听力课"。 2.3 可将 Pre-reading, Reading 和 Comprehending 三个活动整合在一起上一节 “阅读课（一）”。万家乐国际时时彩平台哪个好 2.4 可将 Learning about language 与 Workbook 中的 USING WORDS AND 语
EXPRESSIONS，USING STRUCTURES 整合在一起上一节“语法课”。万家乐国际时时彩平台哪个好 2.5 可将 Using Language 中 Reading 和 Workbook 中 READING TASK 整合 起来,上一节“阅读课（二）”。 2.6 将 Using Language 中的 writing 和 Workbook 中的 WRITING TASK 整合 成一节“写作课”。
3. 课型设计与课时分配 1st period 2nd period 3rd period 4th period 5th period 6th period Speaking Listening Reading Grammar Reading Writing (II) (I)
Ⅳ. 分课时教案 The First Period Speaking Teaching goals 教学目标 1. Target language 目标语言： 重点词汇和短语 discovery, application, evaluate, presentation, alternative, messenger, get together, make a case for, add up 2. Ability goals 能力目标 Enable the students to talk about information and different. 3. Learning ability goals 学能目标 Help the students learn how to talk about inventions and discoveries. Teaching important & difficult points 教学重难点 How to talk about inventions and discoveries. Teaching methods 教学方法 Discussion.
Teaching aids 教具准备 A computer and a projector. Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方法
Step I Warming up Talk about inventions and discoveries. T: The importance of inventions to social progress can never be changed. Ench invention carries the world a step forward and provides stimulation for later ones. Whit inventions turning up all the time, our world is always taking on a new look. But do you know what an invention is? S1: The creation of something new S2: A creation (a new device or process) resulting from study and experimentation. S3: The creation of new things. … Ask the students to talk about the pictures with the teacher’s help, and then discuss the first two questions. T: And what is a discovery? What’s the difference between a discovery and an invention? Now look at the pictures on page 1. Work in pairs and talk about the three different things, telling them apart and giving reasons.
Show the following. 1. Which o these pictures show inventions? Does any of them show discoveries? 2. Work out two rules that will help you decide what is a discovery and what is an invention? S1: I think the first two are inventions, i. e. the amphibious car and Stevenson’s “Rocket” while the last picture about the DNA is a kind of discovery. Because the first two products were quite new to people at that time and no one had ever seen or designed such kind of vehicles before though some others had made similar cars or machines which had less functions and advantages as these two. I think the picture about the DNA is a kind of scientific discovery in biology because such
cells and their structure do exist in living creatures and they have been found out by a certain scientist and are made known to the public nowadays. So I think a discovery is something existing before but unknown while an invention is something unknown and not existing before. S2: I think the first two pictures show us great human inventions about the transportation because they were invented by people for certain purposes and they had special advantages and could satisfy people’s needs in some ways. On the other hand the third picture showing the formation of DNA is a kind of discovery because these special cells exist and function in the body of life all the time no matter who discovers it or when and where it is discovered. In my opinion a discovery is something found out or brought to view now but it was unknown before while an invention is something created or designed by people, which is completely new not only now but in the past. T: Well, from these pictures we can see that there lies differences between a discovery and an invention. There are certain rules or questions you should pay attention to while distinguishing them. Did it exist in the past? Is it created or developed by people? An invention is something that is created by a human being, such as the lightning rod. To the contrary, a discovery merely makes known something that already existed in nature, such as the discovery on the New Continent by Columbia. OK. Let’s go on with some other questions of this part. You may talk with your partner first before we have a check five minutes later. Show the following. What modern inventions do you know? Describe them to your partner and how useful they are in life today. S1: Adidas 1 is the thinking shoes with a built-in microprocessor that decides how soft or firm the wearer needs the support. It has been chosen by Popular Science magazine as the best recreation invention of 2004. It is very comfortable to wear it all day without worrying about your toes being hurt and you can adjust the height and stiffness according to your demands whenever you want and wherever you go. Thus it is a very practical choice for both the young and the old when
having exciting sports outdoors or resting at home during holidays. S2: Camera phones have opened up a new way to communicate. Because many of them look like regular cell phones, you can snap pictures as discreetly as any spy and, with the push of a few buttons, pop them into an e-mail or upload them to the Web in less than a minute. No wires or to the Web in less than a minute. No wires or computer hookups necessary. To be sure, most camera phones end up taking pictures of friends family, babies and pets. But they have also been used to snap pictures of VIPs at private parties, copy recipes from cookbooks at bookstores and even document crimes in progress. But with an estimated 80 million camera phones sold in 2003, 6 million in the U. S. alone? the cat may already be out of the camera bag. Like it or not, these camera phones have been very popular and widely used by people even today. S3: A kind of robot heart called AbioCor was invented in 2001. On July 2, 2001, the 59-year-old grandfather and retired librarian Robert Tools became the first human to get one. It’s been long since the operation, and Tools’ new heart is still beating. He can walk a city block without stopping and he’s even making plans for the future. Though not everybody needs a new heart, hundreds of thousands eventually may. Nor will an artificial heart rid the world of sickness or poverty or terror. But sometimes it really helps. T: Very good! I am glad to see that all of you have known so many modern inventions both at home and abroad and you have thought a lot about them. It’s certain that modern discoveries and inventions do have great effects in people’s life and can always represent the advanced science and technology, so you should to distinguish them and make good use of them.
Step II Talking T: Suppose you are working for a mobile company. It is your job to suggest new ways of developing a mobile. In pairs discuss some new applications of a mobile. Make a list of the ones you like and that seem the most useful. Choose one you both like and think will be popular with other people. Now work in groups of four to
discuss the question. S1: I suggest the new applications of mobile should be: portable entertainment players, cameras, membership and loyalty cards, guidebooks, maps, tickets, watches, and devices for accessing everything from news to corporate databases. Among them, we like the applications of devices for accessing everything from news to corporate databases. We both think they are useful and will soon be popular with others in the near future because the ability will enable a whole class of workers to rely less on their memory and more on their company’s and even world’s knowledge maintenance, sales construction, transportation, taxicab drivers, and many other workers spend a great deal of time from offices. Thus, when they need information, they must either have it in their heads or stop what they are doing and make a pone call. S2: I think the new mobiles can be developed better with 4G to listen to the radio, watch TV, play games, do shopping, chat on the QQ,, surf the internet, control the electrical equipment at home in the distance, give off harmless rays and be used as computers with special operating systems which can do business, have fun and work as intelligent P4 computers. Among them, we like the new application of surfing the internet and doing shopping and we both think they are useful and will soon be popular among youngsters because it is very convenient for people to find various useful information whenever and wherever possible. As there are different kinds of goods to choose from online and it’s very funny and exciting to make choices and buy what we need at a reasonable price without going out and bargain with sellers in the markets. … T: Very good. Now get together with another pair to discuss whether your suggestion is a good one. Make a case for your idea. Let the other pair evaluate it. Then swap so that you evaluate their idea. Decide which idea you like better and prepare to explain it. Then present it to the class. S1: I think the first classmate’s expectation that the mobile phones can do so much, maybe more than they can offer. The mobile phones usually have limited size and
capacity. So I think it will take time before the mobiles are designed to meet his needs. S2: I think it’s practical and meaningful for the second classmate to develop the mobiles in that way. Though it has been used in some ways but we can do better because every day we have much information to look for and different types of things to do and the smart mobile can make it more convenient for us to achieve our goals in life. … T: Now, I’d like you to discuss in groups and try to tell the other about your ideas and the others who act as the leaders of the company may ask some questions for him or her to answer. Then I’d like some of you to report your group work. Five minutes later. (L=Leader of the company) S: I think the new mobiles can be developed better with 4G to watch TV and do shopping on the internet. L1: Well, have you thought about the cost of this kind of new mobile which has a large capacity and such functions. S: Yes. I’ll make a good survey of the international electronic markets in advance and try to reduce the cost as much as possible. L2: Are you sure of the security measures of using these mobiles, especially when they are used to shop on the internet. S: Sure. I’ll keep the new mobiles designed so in order that they will give warning messages whenever there is misleading information or dishonesty in selling and buying things on the internet. L3: I think it would be difficult for the new mobile of limited size to be used to watch live broadcast and pick out all sorts of goods on the internet. Have you taken these into consideration? S: Yes. Now, I come to realize that I have to design the mobiles with larger screens, which can make it more convenient and comfortable for the users. Thank you! T: Very good! I can see all of you have done a good job in the presentation. Next I
want you to evaluate the ideas using the following criteria. First, do you know about the words, Such as originality and quality argument? S: Yes, originality just means the quality of being new and interesting and quality argument just means different opinions about the quality of the product. T: Quite right! Now let’s look at the criteria and go on with the next step. Show the following Score Idea Originality Usefulness Presentation Quality of argument Total score 1---- 4 1---- 4 1---- 4 1---- 4 1---- 4 5---- 20 Team 1 Team 2 Team 3 Team 4
After each group has taken part, add up the scores and award the contract to the winner! T: Next, I’d like to divide you into four teams and the leader of the company will write down the scores according to the criteria while helping everyone present the ideas. At last the winner will be awarded in class.
Step III SPEAKING TASK (若时间不足，可改为作业) 若时间不足，可改为作业 若时间不足 T: Leonardo da Vinci was not only a painter, but a true inventor. Now look at the picture in 1 on page 68. I’d like you to work in pairs and discuss what this invention of Leonardo da Vinci was. Several alternative explanations are provided, but only one is correct. Be prepared to give your ideas to the class with your reasons. S: I think it’s a kind of water slide because we can clearly see the long slide way connecting the water tower, equipment on the roof of the building and the base on the ground. If there is a lack of water down on the ground, the working machine
will be used so carry water from the tower above to the ground along the slide way. Just so, this specially fixed machine can also carry water up to store in the tower if the water on the ground is more than needed. This kind of invention is really useful especially in some dry or mountainous areas. T: Good! You are very creative in thinking about the use of the machine in different cases and from this we can see Leonard da Vinci is really a great inventor. He contributed to people’s everyday life besides painting wonderful pictures. Well, let’s go on with Activity 2. Please look at the pictures and read the instructions below, discuss in groups and finish the exercises. Sample answers: What was its possible use? Why? When and where did it appear in Europe?
1. Its possible use is calculation About the middle of the 15th in Russia because it is usually called “the Chinese computer” by foreigners. 2. Its possible use is to spread the About the late 15th Germany development of culture because it is usually used to print papers for people to read. 3. Its possible use is to tell the exact About the 17th France time because it is invented with hands of hour, second and minute.
Step IV Project T: “Creativity is the soul of a nation and an inexhaustible source of a country’s prosperity.” Chinese former President Jiang Zemin said in the speech delivered on November 24 to the scientific and technological community in the Science City of Novosibirsk. As a young generation, every one of us should be creative and inventive in order to contribute more to make our country richer and more beautiful. Now, please look at the project exercise on page 69. I’d like you first
read the introductions and then discuss in pairs about the pictures and solutions to the problems. Finally I’d like someone to present your work. One possible solution: S: In this kind of situation, I will have to use the sticks and ropes to make a fishing rod with the nails made in shape of hooks. I will cut the pumpkin or the nuts on the trees into halves so as to make a water container. And as for the shelter I’d use the piece of cloth combined with sticks, ropes and nails. I will have to need a magnifying glass found on the island to focus the heat on the leaves and wood so that there will be much smoke rising from the fire caused by the strong light and heat from the sun. If I’m not lucky enough to be saved by someone, I would have to use the ropes cut by the knife to link the pieces of wood together so as to make a raft as means of escape. T: Good! You all have good imaginations and you have known much about how to design and make effective inventions especially in emergency. I am very proud of you and I’m sure you will do more research about the inventions after class until you make them perfect.
Step V Homework Ask the students to do the following. 1. Search for more information about mobiles on the Internet. 2. Prepare for the listening part on page 26.